We do this every day, especially when Facebook discussions veer into politics. We hear what was said, evaluate it, see which position has the most weight, and call that correct, our stance. But often wise people, including sincere followers of Jesus, see the same situation and evidence and reach different conclusions. Why?
I realize some truth is subjective, like what's the best flavor of ice cream, but other issues go deeper. Is war right? If so, when? Abortion? Murder? The sexual abuse of children? Homosexual marriage?
Axiology explains the divergence, and followers of Jesus need to carefully examine ours. Axiology is the study of values and their sources. Our axiology drives our stance on these and other critical issues, even though we may not be consciously aware of the process. As a result, subconscious values can result in different Christians having different positions.
Some typical axiologies include self-interest (what benefits us), or society's current values, or family teachings, or our emotions, or reason and evidence, or pragmatism (whatever works), or pleasure (if it feels good, do it). The difficulty here is that we are finite, we never know it all, things change (like the acceptance in the last ten years of homosexual marriage). This leaves a confusion in determining right and wrong when in a changing culture.
For those who yearn to follow Jesus (and only these. If you're a nonbeliever I'm not forcing my faith down your throat, OK?), we have a consistent axiology that should drive how we determine right and wrong. And, this lies at the heart of following Jesus.
Listen to Jesus' words: "All power (or authority) is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Therefore go..." (Matthew 28:18-19). Or, Jesus and the Father should be the source of our axiology, how we determine the right course. When they speak, we listen. We lovingly stand against culture, our own short term interest, our emotions, even our families, when they contradict what Jesus has told us.
Kick Starting the Application
Most of us have a blend of axiologies that we work from. Examine some of your recent decisions on right and wrong, and what prompted your stance. Where did Jesus fit in? Did some contradict what Jesus or God have said? Why do you use some of the axiologies you have? How can you refine your axiology to be more Jesus centered?
If you'd like to explore this more, the next two links have some good info. I've read these pages and recommend them, but I can't vouch for other material connected to them.